Cypht 1.0.0 Released

After more than 3 years of work, over 3,300 commits, 8 release candidates, 126 resolved issues, and 35,000+ lines of code, I’m pleased to announce the first official stable release of the Cypht webmail program is now available! As anyone who has worked in creating releases for software knows, it’s hard to draw a line in the sand. There is nothing worse than creating a release only to find out the next day you forgot something critical or missed an important bug fix. At the same time, creating releases is a crucial part of getting your software into the hands of users.

I created the release branch 2 months ago with the hope that it would only take a week or two to work out the kinks. After eight release candidates, we finally hit the “it’s good enough, let’s do this thing” point. The way I’m structuring releases in git is to create a release branch from the master branch, then porting applicable bug fixes from the master branch to the release branch while putting out pre-release candidates. Point releases will come from the same branch, but primary development continues on the master, until the next major release, which starts the process over again. I first learned this style of releasing from the Squirrelmail project lo these many years ago. In those days we used diff and patch to port fixes from trunk. With “git cherry-pick” this process is a LOT easier.

The downside to this approach is that over time the master branch diverges from the release branch, and it can get harder and harder to port fixes. The solution is to release often, effectively “dead-ending” the prior release branches as new ones are created. This is a good thing since it encourages frequent releasing. Enough has changed in the master branch in the last 2 months, I’m already eyeballing a 1.1 feature release.

I want to thank everyone who contributed code, filled out a bug report, sent me an E-mail inquiry, requested a feature, donated a translation, or told me they love/hate it. The primary force behind Cypht development is what I want a webmail client to do, but feedback is super important to broaden our user base. I greatly appreciate everyone’s feedback and support for the project.

If you are looking for a secure, lightweight self-hosted webmail that provides access to all your E-mail accounts from one place, give Cypht a try and let me know what you think!

Continuous testing for Cypht with Travis CI and BrowserStack

I randomly happened upon Travis CI a few weeks ago. Travis is a “continuous integration” platform that can be tied to a Github account. Every time a change is pushed to the Github repository, Travis can run all your unit tests, and it can connect to a Selenium grid provider like BrowserStack or Sauce Labs to run Selenium tests. All 3 (Travis, BrowserStack and Sauce Labs) provide free versions of their services for Open Source projects. “This sounds really cool!” I thought. And it is. But it took a wee bit of work to get it all running. By wee bit I mean a veritable shit-ton. Hopefully this post will save someone out there the hours of Travis config tweaking it took me to get everything ship-shape.

Travis has a lot of good online documentation, definitely a useful resource to get you started. Basically what Tavis does is spin up virtual machines, that you can control using its setup script. Then it will run whatever commands you want to execute your tests (in my case PHPUnit tests and Selenium tests written in python). By using it’s ability to create a “build matrix”, you can generate different server configurations to run your tests on.

As I write this I am running a build with 75 combinations (!). 5 versions of PHP x 3 different databases x 5 different web browsers. This build is not very practical since it will take about 6 hours to complete, but I had to try it once because of course I did. My standard build is 15 different server configurations (PHP versions x database types) with 5 different browsers (3 server-side combinations per browser).

In no particular order here are some tips and tricks for various parts of the configuration that took some time to figure out.

PHP versions
Setting up multiple PHP versions is a snap. You just list the ones you want in your .travis.yml file (the main Travis configuration file), and BOOM – it creates new instances for each version. The only problem I ran into with this is that PHP 7 versions do not have the LDAP extension enabled, while PHP 5 versions do. You can work around this by adding the extensions during your setup process to the travis.ini file that will eventually become the php.ini file.

PHP version setup

Fix for missing LDAP extentions in PHP 7

PHPUnit versions
PHPUnit has 2 major versions that cover PHP 5.4 through 7.1, so you will need to make sure you have the right version installed in each instance. The easiest way to do this is to wget, chmod, and mv the correct phar file based on the PHP version. Travis makes the version available as an environment variable during the setup process, so by looking at that you can grab the correct PHPUnit file.

Set up different versions of PHPUnit

If you want a PHP enabled web server for your UI tests, and I assume you do since you read this far into the post, you need to install and configure that yourself. I cobbled together a couple of examples from the Travis docs and some various other blog posts to make this work. The example from the Travis docs works fine for PHP 5, however you have to work around an issue with a missing default pool configuration for FPM using PHP 7. I also wanted an IMAP account Cypht could connect to for a more real world experience, so my setup creates a system user to test with, installs Dovecot IMAP, tweaks the configuration slightly, and starts the IMAP service.

Set up Apache with PHP FPM (and the Python Selenium driver)

Default config file for Apache used in the setup

Default FPM pool file used in the setup that fixes PHP 7

Set up a system user with a known password

Set up Dovecot IMAP

Databases are as easy as PHP version, just list the ones you want in the main Travis configuration file. However they are not configured in a way applications normally use them. The current database for an instance is in an environment variable, so you can use that to determine which database to bootstrap with whatever tables or users you need. Cypht runs tests across Mysql, Postgresql, and Sqlite3.

Database setup (note this is for the massive 75 instance build. You only need one row without the BROWSER part for each database you want to test)

Bootstrap databases for the Cypht unit tests

To run selenium tests you need to connect your Travis instance to a selenium grid, like Sauce Labs or BrowserStack. I prefer BrowserStack, but both are great. The online docs for this are pretty comprehensive, and it took a lot less time than I thought to get this working. Then I tried to use different browsers and ran into a serious problem. Chrome, Firefox, and Safari all worked fine, but Edge and Internet Explorer always failed.

By using the replay feature in BrowserStack, I could see that logins to Cypht failed with those 2 browsers. After much head scratching and keyboard bashing, I realized the issue was that these two browsers will not set cookies when accessing a site with the host name of “localhost”. Thankfully there is a work-around for this. You can force the tests to run locally, but also give them a real host name instead of localhost.

Config entry to use a different host name (the important bits are “hosts” and “forcelocal”)

Limitations for Open Source accounts
Travis will allow Open Source accounts to run 5 parallel instances, however both BrowserStack and Sauce Labs only allow 2 parallel connections to their service. In the Travis dashboard you will want to limit your parallel instances to 2 to match the Selenium provider maximum, otherwise those builds will break.

Return value
After the setup completes, Travis runs your “script command”. The return value of this command or commands will tell Travis if your tests were successful or not. You must be sure to return a non-zero value on failure, otherwise Travis won’t know something went wrong with your tests. You can string commands together with “&&” to build a set of commands to run, which will exit immediately if a non-zero value is returned by any command in the list.

Script command Cypht uses

In conclusion, Travis CI rocks for Open Source integration testing and I highly recommend it. Now I have no excuse to not write more tests!

Cypht Webmail Screen Shots – Mobile Version

I had a request on the “Cypht Webmail Screen Shots” post to share some mobile/responsive views of the program. Since I always aim to please, and since the percentage of people with even a shred of interest in this project is so very very small, here it is!

Overall, my design skills fall somewhere between terrible and total shit. My design premise for the Cypht UI has been: “Don’t pretend you know what colors go well together. Don’t fool yourself into thinking you can make something slick. JUST KEEP IT SIMPLE DUMMY“.

I’m pleasantly surprised with the result. It’s pretty standard webmail fare, super simple, and reasonably consistent across browsers.


The main menu. Available by swiping right on any page, or with the awkward looking triangle in the upper left corner of a page.


I pretty much never write E-mail on my phone. But I could!


Yay, only 1 unread message! Also, if you have not checked out Humble Bundle, you should.


The site settings page


General site settings. Kind of squeezed in there, but not too bad!


Search all the things again!


Read a search result. The message view page is tricky on mobile. This one looks pretty good, but others not so much. It’s a work in progress.


Just a teeny tiny calendar. Nothing to see here.


RSS news feed for my favorite Linux news site.


Server management page


“Quick add” dialog on the server page. So cool.


Keyboard shortcut management.


IMAP folder management.


Save settings page.

There are some noticeable omissions to this list, specifically the contacts management interface and the profiles page. I left profiles out because it looks like dog poop, and I left contacts out because I realized the screenshot was of my actual contacts and that would be dumb to post. It looked pretty good though! All in all, Cypht is pretty responsive. Writing this post helped me identify some areas we need to work on, so thanks to the person who requested it!

Cypht Webmail Screen Shots

This is YET ANOTHER post to shill for Cypht, my Open Source webmail project. But instead of droning on endlessly about technical mumbo-jumbo like I usually do, this one has pictures! They are pretty! Let’s look at them!


Browsing IMAP folders like it’s the noughts yo!


Fancy compose form with an HTML editor. Cypht also supports text only for outbound E-mail (and FTW).


The Servers page is where you add data sources to your account. Without data sources there is not much to look at.


Site settings page with expandable categories.


Search all the things at once!


Read one of the things you searched for!


This webmail program has a calendar. It’s truly amazing.


Home page on mobile (S5 emulation with Chromium)


Main menu on mobile


RSS feed list view on mobile


I almost forgot we support themes. I suck at it, but it’s pretty easy. Maybe somebody who doesn’t suck at it will make some more


This theme is called “VT100”. See what I mean about sucking at themes?

There is more, but I’m too lazy to set up decent looking test data and you get the idea. All this uploading of images has made me tired, so I think I will go take a nap.

The Future of E-mail

I think about E-mail a lot. I’m weird that way. I think of E-mail as an annoying neighbor who wanders over to your yard on a regular basis to chit-chat when you are obviously busy – It just won’t go away. It’s like a realization had in the shower in your early 40’s about your hairstyle choice – It hasn’t really changed in 20 years. And (last simile, I promise), like an untreated rash – It’s not going to just fade away. Trust me on that last one.

Every so often somebody declares that “X software” will kill E-mail, usually referring to some sort of instant message program like Slack. I will admit that while I worked at Automattic we used Slack to a much greater degree than E-mail, but they served different purposes. If E-mail is the electronic version of mail, glorified IRC Services like Slack are the electronic version of a phone call. I don’t recall the US Post Office going out of business when the telephone was invented.

After the “E-mail killers” comes the revolutionaries, changing the way you use E-mail forever. It’s new! It’s shiny! Never mind the fact it’s built on the same old plumbing, don’t worry about that! It has smart-<feature>! It solves all the problems with E-mail you didn’t even know you had until we told you! The world is saved! I like exclamation points!

As a webmail developer, I’m not trying to revolutionize anything. I’m certainly not interested in killing off E-mail. Channeling my inner curmudgeon, I actually like E-mail. But I also think there is room for improvement. With my latest Open Source webmail project, called Cypht (which this blog is designed to shill for), I’m trying to address those areas of concern. Unfortunately for you, I’m going to elaborate.

I have lots of E-mail addresses, mostly because I’m a dork, but I bet that if you have any E-mail account at all, you probably have more than one. Work account. Gmail. Maybe your ISP crams one down your throat like mine does. A throw-away account. Some other free E-mail service you signed up for that one time for some secretive reason you don’t want to talk about.

I want a webmail solution that I can host, that gives me direct access to all my accounts. I don’t want to forward everything to the Google content-mining advertisement delivery interface. I don’t want to POP messages from one account to another in a chain of complicated hops that somehow results in two copies of everything. I want an E-mail delivered to account X to stay in account X, I just want to check it at the same time I check Y and Z.

In my not so humble opinion, this is the most useful feature of Cypht – aggregated views from multiple accounts. You can still go old school and browse folder hierarchies like it’s 1999, but you can also see all your unread messages from all your accounts in a single view. Or search them all at once. Even though this software is not even alpha quality yet, the search feature has already saved my butt more than once.

Well shoot, I got so focused on pimping my project that I forgot to say anything meaningful about the future of E-mail. So here are some half-assed predictions. I predict that E-mail will persist for at least another 20 years as one of the main underpinnings of the internet, and that for the most part it will go unchanged. IMAP servers will still be IMAPing, and SMTP servers will keep SMTPing. Or maybe we will all be using Slack to E-mail and back to Slack gateways, so we never have to login to an E-mail client again. Heck if I know, I’m terrible at predicting things. Either way I need to go pick up my rash ointment.